1. PRINCIPLE: When a criminal act is done by several persons in furtherance of the common intention of all, each of such persons is liable for that act in the same manner as if it were done by him alone.
FACTS: Four men agree to rob a bank. Two of them are carrying large knives and one has a shotgun. The last one is carrying a bag for the money. They agree that they will try not to hurt anyone. They enter the bank wearing masks, threaten the staff, and demand cash. One of the bank employees tries to grab the shotgun, and the man holding it discharges the shotgun, causing the death of the employee. The men get the cash and leave the bank.
Can any or all of the robbers be charged in relation to the murder of the employee?
(a) Yes, all of the robbers can be charged because the act of one man in discharging the gun was in pursuit of the common intention to hurt anyone if necessary while robbing the bank.
(b) No, the robbers were of the common intention that they would try not to hurt anyone, and this was obviously an accident.
(c) Yes, all of the robbers can be charged because the act of one man in discharging the gun was in pursuit of the common intention of all of them to rob the bank.
(d) Yes, but only the man who discharged the shotgun can be charged, as it is his fault alone, and the others were of the common intention that they would try not to hurt anyone.
2. PRINCIPLE: The master is responsible for the negligent acts of his servant during the course of employment.
FACTS: The bus conductor issued tickets of the wrong denomination to Ankit who was travelling with his office colleagues in the bus. During a check carried out by the transport authorities, Ankit was fined Rs.500 for having tickets of a lesser denomination. Humiliated in front of his colleagues, Ankit wants compensation from the transport authority for causing harm to his reputation.
(a) Ankit would succeed in his claim
(b) Ankit is not entitled to make the claim
(c) The conductor is personally liable to pay damages to Ankit
(d) None of the above.
The answers are: 1. (c); 2. (a).
1. If TEA is coded as 100, then how will you code FAT?
2. If A represents ‘x’, B represents ‘÷’, C represents ‘+’ and D represents ‘–’, then find the value of ‘2 A 8 D 5 C 9 B 3?
3. In a class of 60 students, the number of boys is double the number of girls. In a class test, Kapil’s rank is 10th from the top and there are 3 girls ahead of him in rank. How many boys are below him in rank?
The answers are: 1. (a); 2. (d); 3. (c)
Directions (Qs. 1 and 2): Given below is a statement, followed by two arguments numbered I and II. You have to decide which of the arguments is a ‘strong’ argument and which one is a ‘weak’ argument.
(a) If only argument I is strong
(b) If only argument II is strong
(c) If neither I nor II is strong
(d) If both I and II are strong.
1. Statement: Should there be reservation of seats and posts on communal basis?
I. Yes. It will check most of the inter-communal biases.
II. No. Ours is a secular state.
2. Statement: Should the railways immediately stop issuing free passes to all its employees?
I. No. The employees have the right to travel free.
II. Yes. This will help railways to provide better facility.
The answers are: 1. (b); 2. (c).